Christopher Wilkins, 48, was pronounced dead at 6:29 p.m. local time (0029 GMT Thursday) after the injection at the state's death chamber in Huntsville, the Texas Department of Criminal Justice said in a press release.
There was no last statement, it added.
The execution was the 539th in Texas since the U.S. Supreme Court reinstated the death penalty in 1976, the most of any state.
The number of U.S. executions had fallen to a quarter-century low in 2016 due to factors including high costs of prosecutions, sales bans on lethal injections drugs and increased use by juries of life without parole as a sentence.
The Supreme Court denied a last-minute appeal to halt the execution.
Wilkins was convicted in the 2005 killing of Willie Freeman, 40, and Mike Silva, 33, in the Fort Worth area and dumping their bodies.
Prosecutors contended Wilkins paid $20 for crack cocaine and Freeman gave him a piece of gravel instead. Freeman laughed at Wilkins, told him it was a joke and gave him drugs to make amends.Read more at Reuters